FCC 73.128 Revised as of December 4, 2012
Goto Year:2011 |
§ 73.128 AM stereophonic broadcasting.
(a) An Am broadcast station may, without specific authority from the
FCC, transmit stereophonic programs upon installation of type accepted
stereophonic transmitting equipment and the necessary measuring
equipment to determine that the stereophonic transmissions conform to
the modulation characteristics specified in paragraphs (b) and (c) of
this section. Stations transmitting stereophonic programs prior to
March 21, 1994 may continue to do so until March 21, 1995 as long as
they continue to comply with the rules in effect prior to March 21,
(b) The following limitations on the transmitted wave must be met to
insure compliance with the occupied bandwidth limitations,
compatibility with AM receivers using envelope detectors, and any
applicable international agreements to which the FCC is a party:
(1) The transmitted wave must meet the occupied bandwidth
specifications of § 73.44 under all possible conditions of program
modulation. Compliance with requirement shall be demonstrated either by
the following specific modulation tests or other documented test
procedures that are to be fully described in the application for type
acceptance and the transmitting equipment instruction manual. (See
§ 2.983(d)(8) and (j)).
(i) Main channel (L+R) under all conditions of amplitude modulations
for the stereophonic system but not exceeding amplitude modulation on
negative peaks of 100%.
(ii) Stereophonic (L−R) modulated with audio tones of the same
amplitude at the transmitter input terminals as in paragraph (b)(i) of
this section but with the phase of either the L or R channel reversed.
(iii) Left and Right Channel only, under all conditions of modulation
for the stereophonic system in use but not exceeding amplitude
modulation on negative peaks of 100%.
(c) Effective on December 20, 1994, stereophonic transmissions shall
conform to the following additional modulation characteristics:
(1) The audio response of the main (L+R) channel shall conform to the
requirements of the ANSI/EIA-549-1988, NRSC-1 AM Preemphasis/Deemphasis
and Broadcast Transmission Bandwidth Specifications (NRSC-1).
(2) The left and right channel audio signals shall conform to frequency
response limitations dictated by ANSI/EIA-549-1988.
(3) The stereophonic difference (L−R) information shall be transmitted
by varying the phase of the carrier in accordance with the following
eCFR graphic er20de93.000.gif
L(t)=audio signal left channel,
R(t)=audio signal right channel,
m=modulation factor, and
mpeak (L(t)+R(t))=1 for 100% amplitude modulation,
mpeak (L(t)−R(t))=1 for 100% phase modulation.
(4) The carrier phase shall advance in a positive direction when a left
channel signal causes the transmitter envelope to be modulated in a
positive direction. The carrier phase shall likewise retard (negative
phase change) when a right channel signal causes the transmitter
envelope to be modulated in a positive direction. The phase modulation
shall be symmetrical for the condition of difference (L−R) channel
information sent without the presence of envelope modulation.
(5) Maximum angular modulation, which occurs on negative peaks of the
left or right channel with no signal present on the opposite channel
(L(t)=−0.75, R(t)=0, or R(t)=−0.75, L(t)=0) shall not exceed 1.25
(6) A peak phase modulation of +/−0.785 radians under the condition of
difference (L−R) channel modulation and the absence of envelope (L+R)
modulation and pilot signal shall represent 100% modulation of the
(7) The composite signal shall contain a pilot tone for indication of
the presence of stereophonic information. The pilot tone shall consist
of a 25 Hz tone, with 3% or less total harmonic distortion and a
frequency tolerance of +/− 0.1 H2 , which modulates the carrier phase
+/− 0.05 radians peak, corresponding to 5% L−R modulation when no other
modulation is present. The injection level shall be 5%, with a
tolerance of +1, −1%.
(8) The composite signal shall be described by the following
eCFR graphic er20de93.001.gif
A=the unmodulated carrier voltage
m=the modulation index
Csn =the magnitude of the nth term of the sum signal
Cdn =the magnitude of the nth term of the difference signal
ωsn =the nth order angular velocity of the sum signal
ωdn =the nth order angular velocity of the difference signal
ωc =the angular velocity of the carrier
eCFR graphic er20de93.002.gif
Asn and Bsn are the nth sine and cosine coefficients of Csn
Adn and Bdn are the nth sine and cosine coefficients of Cdn
[ 58 FR 66301 , Dec. 20, 1993]
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